POR UMA ARQUITETURA LE CORBUSIER PDF
Uploaded by Elis Dantas Medeiros. Título: Por uma Arquitetura Autor: Le Corbusier Tipo: Livro. Copyright: © All Rights Reserved. Download as PDF or read. Este período coincide com a consolidação em Salvador de uma arquitetura . 4 na arquitetura eclética de décadas anteriores, por exemplo – até a criação de obras .. e estrangeiros de renome internacional, como o arquiteto Le Corbusier, . nissart.info Arquitetura de Motéis Cariocas: Espaço e Organização Social. 2a. ed. Rio de .. Le Corbusier. Por uma arquitetura.
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File:Corbusier Le Mensagem aos estudantes de nissart.info nissart.info (file size. Nessa chave, o problema com a arquitetura de uma Zaha Hadid, por obra de Le Corbusier, sobretudo) entre a experiência fenomenológica do espaço real e. tar pela simplicidade de linhas e por um óbvio desejo de discrição. Não há curvas puração que se estende da arquitetura à decoração do interior; uma ideia de elegância e . with the Le Corbusier LC14 stool () by Maison du Brésil.
Hotel Diamantina O Hotel Diamantina fig. Detalhe dos pilares. Fachada para a Av. Rio Branco. Totalmente independente dos pilotis, permitiu que os arquitetos tivessem toda a liberdade no projeto dos pavimentos-tipo, em um sistema que atingiu o ponto mais alto em termos do estudo de planta: Nossa Senhora de Copacabana Concrete Design. Mitchell Baezley, , pp.
Foto-montagem do modelo com o Cristo Redentor ao fundo. Vista do arco estruturante do bloco admini strativo. Tem como principal atrativo estrutural o sistema de pilares convergentes no pilotis. Niemeyer utiliza no Hospital SulAmerica, pela primeira vez , o sistema que seria marca registrada desta fase de sua carreira: Cabe aqui ressaltar: Desde a montagem das formas e armaduras fig.
Vista parcial do anexo, com o hospital ao fundo. Fachada leste. Portal Vitruvius, nov Os pilares inclinados do bloco de sala de aula. Vista posterior da escola em obras.
A perspectiva explodida representada na fig. Perspectiva explodida. A sede definitiva do museu foi elaborada em , apesar do MAM ter sido fundado em O programa previa um museu, um teatro, uma escola de arte e um restaurante. O bloco teatro nunca saiu do papel. Cortes transversais.
Esquema geral das armaduras. A primeira parte da obra a ficar pronta foi o chamado bloco-escola fig. Vista do bloco escola. O maior dos pilares possui 6,75m de comprimento e o menor 3,6m. Planta do andar-tipo esc. Planta do pilotis esc. Vista interna das unidades habitacionais. Vista dos brises a partir do volume da escada. Plano de fachada. O bloco possui duas naves longitudinais, a maior de 10m de largura e uma menor de 5m.
Corte longitudinal. Croqui da galeria. Isto reduz ainda mais a carga transferida para a colunata externa. Posteriormente, no final da obra, foi feita a terraplenagem e a parte inferior da fachada ficou soterrada. Imagem das lajes ainda nas formas. Terreno sem aterro, revelando os suportes inferiores. Detalhe da base dos pilares.
Isto exige uma avultada armadura transversal. Os pilares foram concebidos com uma face plana na prumada externa e curvas inferiores e superiores na parte interna. Somente os pilares internos suportam as cargas dos pavimentos: Vista lateral do encontro da laje com um dos pilares.
Detalhe do encontro dos pilares com o solo. Foto interna do reflexo da rampa em formato de ferradura. Toda esta carga permanente de cobertura levou os construtores a executar uma contra-flecha de 10cm. Fausto A. Vista geral do conjunto. Vista frontal do conjunto. Detalhe da montagem das armaduras. Montagem das armaduras da grande laje.
Inicialmente foi executada apenas a nave principal, iniciada em e terminada em junho de fig. A pesquisa indica que trata-se de uma estrutura auto-equilibrada, composta por 16 pilares, dispostos circunferencialmente em planta. A maioria dos dados aqui publicados sobre a estrutura foram obtidos em: Revista Internacional de desastres naturales, accidentes e infraestructura civil.
Vol 2, num 2, Vista do acesso.
Diagrama Estrutural. O escoramento da estrutura da Catedral foi montado com tubos em forma de leque, apoiando cada coluna. A concretagem dos pilares foi realizada em segmentos de quatro metros. Detalhe da montagem ds formas. Retirada das formas e escoras. Os temas abordados nas obras levantadas na pesquisa fig. Onze por cento das obras possuem mais de um tipo estrutural. Dentre os nove tipos de pilotis levantados fig. Bloco de bombas de abastecimento. Casa do Baile, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Ward e Robert Mook: Der Bau von Schiffen aus Eisenbeton.
BOSC, J. L, and B Marrey.
Editions du Linteau, Concreto Armado: Oscar Niemeyer Niemeyer. Editorial Gustavo Gili, S. Porto Alegre: Auguste Perret.
New York: Phaidon, Editora Perspectiva, Affonso Eduardo Reidy: Tese de Doutorado, Mies van der Rohe at Work. Phaidon Press Limited, Quando o Brasil era moderno: Le Corbusier.
Analisis de la forma. A, A concrete atlantis: Mit Press, Aurum Press, Robert Maillart: Cambridge University Press, Robert Maillart and the art of reinforced concrete. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Press, Princeton University Press, The Tower and the Bridge.
Basic Books, Thin shell concrete structures. McGraw-Hill, Le Corbusier Gustavo Gili, Affonso Eduardo Reidy Reidy. Revista Literaria Blau, Lucio Costa: UFRGS, Science et Industrie, Bilan international. Encyclopedie Perret. Editions du Patrimoine, Le Moniteur, Faber and Faber, Vital Brazil. Lajes de concreto armado: Oscar Niemeyer: FUPAM, Science and Building. The Master Builders. Architecture Today and Tomorrow - Oscar Niemeyer: Builder of Brasil. McGraw-hill Book Company, IORI, Tullia.
Il cemento armato in Italia dalle origini alla seconda guerra mondiale. Edilstampa, Hazan, Estilo Internacional: Arquitetura Modernista de a Taschen, Concrete Construction Manual. Birkhauser, S, et al. Engineering in History History.
Editora Universidade, La Modernidad en la obra de Eduardo Torroja. Turner, Urban Utopias in the Twentieth Century: Ediciones Akal, Martins Fontes, Studies in tectonic architecture.
The Poetics of construction in nineteenth and twentieth century architecture. Un Amour sans limites. GANS, Deborah. Guias de Arquitectura - Le Corbusier Corbusier. Gallimard, Espacio, tiempo y arquitectura: Dossat, Benedikt Taschen, France-Grande-Bretagne Champ-Vallon, Beranger, En defensa de Ia arquitectura. Arthaud, Belo Horizonte: Ritter dos Reis, Nicolas Esquillan. Picard, An Introduction to shell structures.
The Art and science of vaulting. Van Nostrand Reinhold, Dunod, Aeroplano Editora, Pionners of prefabrication. The British contribution in the 19th century century. John Hopkins University Press, Catedral de brasilia, folder. Estructuras para arquitectos. Buenos Aires: CP 67, Ediciones Pronaos, Reinforced concrete: Industrial Trabajo Asoc, Editora Record, Bisagra, Twentieth Century Architecture.
Quintet Publishing Ltd, Escolas de Niemeyer Niemeyer. Campo Grande: Fidia, Alfred A. Knopf, PICA, Agnoldomenico. Pier Luigi Nervi. Da Arquitetura. Centro de Arquitetura e Urbanismo do Rio de Janeiro, Zigurate Editora, Editorial Blau, Rio de Janeiro.
Prefeitura Municipal. Guia da arquitetura moderna no Rio de Janeiro. Editora Casa da Palavra: Prefeitura Municipal, ROWE, Colin. Manierismo y arquitectura moderna y otros ensayos.
Editorial Gustavo Gili, Werner Verlag, Why Buildings Stand Up. Norton, Making the modern. Industry, art and design in America. The University of Chicago Press, Alexander Koch, A Flor e o Cristal: Ensaios sobre arte e arquitetura modernas. History of Strength of Materials. Dover, The structures of Eduardo Torroja: Dodge Corporation, Razon y ser de los tipos estructurales. Instituto Eduardo Torroja de la Construccion y del cemento, The Structures of Eduardo Torroja. An Autobiography of engineering accomplishement.
Dodge, Le Corbusier - Rio de Janeiro: Oscar Niemeyer and the Architecture of Brazil. Rizzoli, Oscar Niemeyer e o modernismo de formas livres no Brasil.
Editora da Universidade Estadual Paulista: Studio Nobel, O Concreto no Brasil: Copiare, Aeroporto Santos Dumont, The passage is rather telegraphic and certainly warrants quite diverse interpretations; its key point, however, seems unequivocal to me; it concerns the constitution of meaning, more specifically the connection between a mental entity or event i.
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Ultimately, therefore, what is at play for Eisenman is the contemporary i. Which presumptions are these? It is noteworthy that it was based on these presumptions that Krauss based her argument that the avant-garde art that emerged in the USA in the early s could be divided into two opposing fronts — viz: One understands why Krauss, like Foster, chose Serra as an avatar of her conception of the non-conservative section of contemporary art: It is a compromising shortcut; it suggests that, faced with the challenges and predicaments of such complex theoretical construction, Foster opted for a moral judgment — or, worse still, of moralist indictment.
In doing so, Foster obliterates a significant number of questions — for instance, the problems and limitations that characterize the phenomenological path which is actually presented here as being problem-free. To my mind, much of what Eisenman has been doing since the s are attempts to contradict these precepts.
Obviously, by saying this I do not mean to imply that Eisenman simply solved the numerous problems his work raises — in particular the problem of the connections between subjective intention, intellection processes, and phenomenological experience.
And the first one to admit this hesitance is Eisenman himself, who, after nearly half a century of work, continues to wonder: But hesitance does not mean going backwards, let alone nostalgia. Incidentally, Eisenman has always refused — even at moments of great difficulty for example when Derrida, rather surreptitiously, turned his back on him 12 — to accept alternatives that suggested some sort of return to the pre-contemporary condition which in his case means pre-deconstructivist.
Eisenman made this much clear when he stated, with an uncommon dose of sarcasm:. It is unlikely that Eisenman had Foster in mind when making this taunt; and yet if fits Foster like a glove.
And just like this quest led him to Serra the most mundane of all mundane artists , it also led him to architecture. Not just any architecture, but an architecture which, by definition, is always literal and never virtual; which is construction, rather than mere representation; which, in opposition to the work of the architects that The Art-Architecture Complex concerns itself with, is made of literal transparencies, true phenomenological experiences, essential ties with specific places: What challenges are these?
Above all, those associated with the problem of how one positions oneself in the face of what Hans U. Gumbrecht refers to as the unresolved crisis of metaphysics.
Congresso Internacional da Arquitetura Moderna
In The Return of the Real a book published in the mid, but which contains essential parts written over a decade earlier , Foster seemed to wallow in an epistemological limbo of sorts: Hence, precisely his caveat about the limits of his own intellectual endeavor, destined to reclaim not just any real, only a subjective reconstruction of it Foster, , p. Eloquently, in the final chapter of The Return of the Real, Foster , p.
Likewise, the idea of a critical stance is now restricted to the option presented as self-evident and self-justified of returning to things themselves, to the presence of things themselves, to the grace that eventually arises in the presence of things themselves.
This conservativeness is not new. With this The Art-Architecture Complex, however, it took on clearer — and much more radical — contours.
Nostalgia of what? Now, nostalgia of the modern reality — i. In one word, what Foster misses is the same thing Fried could never find in minimal mart: The end of this condition is experienced by Foster in eschatological terms — i.
What does one do in face of this terrifying scenario? One tries to demonstrate that, instead of the extinction of the modern condition, the contemporary world is actually a reconfiguration of it. This antinomy is certainly not absurd; yet the way it is employed here is somewhat shrewd. Significantly, Foster recurrently describes the contemporary condition in terms of the old i. Let me highlight just one of them: Since Foster, like Krauss, simply cannot afford to leave Smithson outside the boundaries of the contemporary, all that is left for him is to try to replicate what Krauss had already done, and reasonably successfully so: The gesture is unconvincing, but it serves as a lesson.
For the fact that he is an utterly first-hand observer and furthermore an original and independent observer allowed him to impart a very special approach to s art, notably regarding the — extremely sensitive — theme of intentionality. Significantly, instead of turning his back on the notion of intention as Krauss 18 vehemently advised in the early s , Eisenman , p. A circumstantiated analysis of this notion would require another paper. For the time being I will simply point out that, as Eisenman stated, such a notion puts him the author in the precarious space that eventually lies between the human and the inhuman — a space where modern subjectivity in general and critical judgment in particular become in a best-case scenario dysfunctional.
Once again, it is worthwhile to resort to the words of Eisenman:. This is the sort of question that remains unanswered — and which The Art-Architecture Complex has refrained from tackling.
For the time being, this seems as encompassing as it is diffuse; it spans from semiotics to historicism, from environmentalism to feminism, from critical regionalism to deconstruction.
Naturally, it also comprises the dialogue art and architecture. What is specific and interesting about the use of these notions is this: Obviously, there is not anything reproachable about architects employing notions and concepts imported from the discourse of the visual arts. That is, in this case too a minimum amount of deconstruction that is to say, of anti-epistemology is not only recommended, it is actually a precondition for a freer and more productive exchange between art and architecture.
The elucidation of the current art-architecture complex must begin with this realization Allen, Stan, Krista Sykes, org. Cosac Naify, pp.
Eisenman, Peter, Peter Eisenman, New Haven; London: Yale University Press, pp. Foster, Hal, Hal Foster, London; New York: This is evidence that the modernist standard reduced people to abstract concepts and measures. Worldwide, construction is progressively ruled by an increased number of not always productive building regulations, which brings indirect and direct unwanted effects Brown, Hampson, Furneaux, such as increased costs, negative urban impacts, restrictions to innovation and strongly limiting creative process.
As a result, spatial configurations often come out more and more boring and predictable, with visible effects in urban life. In the Brazilian context the situation is even more complex almost in an opposite direction. Strongly influenced by self-production of buildings, especially in peripheral districts Bonduki, ; Ferro, , most of Brazilian construction takes place outside the realm of institutional architecture.
Modernist legacy is manifested in an attempt of creating repetitive component patterns — often with no visible formal intention — and in the apparent rationalization, as means of cutting costs and simplifying construction. The reference to a project of industrial efficiency and mass production is clear, despite of new digital manufacturing technologies that vastly diversify materials or assemblages and of an execution process that is far from completely automated Arantes, ; Ferro, Therefore, if architects have little impact in current space production — surmounted by not only other specialists such as engineers, contractors and construction workers but also by managers, real estate agents and policy makers — they are important opinion leaders as indicators of formal trends.
These trends, of a predominantly visual fashion, create the programed obsolescence effect that makes industrial wheels spin, including furniture production, construction materials and the real state market itself Arantes, ; Ghirardo, In other words, even if the academic architectural debate is highly elitist and disconnected from reality, it reverberates in urban life.
Sometimes construction workers carry stylistic innovations from one building to the other, sometimes the media or entertainment industry highlights buildings and design in films or shows, sometimes the regular urban citizens collect conscious or unconscious experiences and take them to the production of their own space.
But if Architecture claims for more responsibility as a spatial agent, it needs to question how conscious it is of its own social impact. What are we responsible for? While in Design and Communication responsibility is a paramount concept, in Architecture it appears only tangentially, perhaps as an effect of the political detachment sought by Modernism. To Bonsiepe , p. He points out that "while science views the world from the perspective of cognition, design sees it from the perspective of project, an active and propositive take, seeking not only to understand the world, but to transform it".
Flusser questions the deadlocks of this take: more than object making, design involves proposing paths of action, creating limits where they did not exist and steering production through the creation of culture. The author emphasizes the relevance of these activities, urging designers to adopt a reflexive stance in dealing with imposing limits to others.
As such, designers must overcome exclusive technical methods, opening up to autonomy and alterity, connected with an increased potential for user experience. Guatelli warns about the dangers of strict links between program and process in architecture, which are visible in modernist practice and strongly interfere with space production and reception.
DA PROPOSIÇÃO MODERNA NA CONTEMPORANEIDADE: SUPERAÇÃO OU RESGATE?
While defending functionalism, modernism seeks an arguable correspondence between form and content and creates a new language of alleged universality that, in fact, discourage the possibilities of space manipulation and intervention through the establishing of very narrow programmatic limits. How, then, can there be an architecture that is produced for or, preferably, by collective entities while it is still validated and used individually, considering the need of proper transition?
An architecture that is connected to global values, at one time human, universal and contemporary, but adapted to the needs and specificities of and understood by the individual in a real, daily basis?
Jenson presents several orienting concepts towards this kind of practice, two of which will be highlighted here. The first one is the "architecture writ large", where spatial organization and critical problematization, inherent to architectural thought, are expanded beyond disciplinary borders and interact systematically with other fields of knowledge and relate to designing a wide range of human activities.
The other one is a philosophical approach towards Architecture as a solution to the crisis that engulfed the field since the end of the Modern Movement. Jenson suggests not an inflexible and predefined epistemology while analyzing reality or design, but instead an inquisitive view, critical and reflexive in considering problems and issues of contemporary space.
This concept clearly relates to Paulo Freire's "epistemological curiosity" in education, where subjects move from a naive to a critical investigation, approaching in a progressively more rigorous way any given knowable object — in this case, space itself.
As such, it is a valid strategy not only to architects, but to all specialist and lay spatial agents. Autonomy, another relevant concept advocated by Freire and others Sousa, , p. The first one, material, political and institutional, allows the "conscious and explicit self-government of a given collectiveness" and the second one, individual, guarantees the "ability of particular individuals to choose freely, knowingly and responsibly".
The previously criticized disciplinary autonomy is therefore abandoned in favor of the autonomy of others, where the solidary concept of alterity defines new collective practices detached from the need of authorship Figure 1. Figure 1. The existence of a single narrative for modern historiography and theory, typical of utopian perspectives, is also an object for debate.
It claims that there is a continuously evaluative technological process, starting at barbarism and ending at the technological solution to all of human problems.
Massey proposes wavering this temporal narrative historical in favor of a spatial narrative geographic , which replaces the logic of historical consistency and concatenation by relations of dissent, diversity and fragmentation.
Space, for Massey, is always transforming through time, it never ends or concludes and is always in process. This relational understanding suggests the need for connecting and weaving this spatial heterogeneity, permitting that this conflicting coexistences continuously create new situations and configurations. In that sense, fluidity appears as a fundamental principle in establishing these relationships, orienting both, the designing or activist work of architects Figure 2.
Figure 2. Fluidity — Colombian architect Felipe Uribe opens up spaces at Parque de Los Deseos for so that different groups and uses can happen simultaneously.
Small topographic changes and design marks configure spaces for this activities without disconnecting or segregating them. In order to build new relations, these interventions should relate to user experience, even at a corporal level.
Modernism has been gradually disconnected from this second type, moving towards abstraction and monumentality. Beyond the separate comprehension of each of these orders of magnitude, architects must understand that they coexist and influence each other by accumulation or fragmentation.
The ability of transitioning between each scale is what allows an effective ownership of space by users Figure 3. Figure 3. Scale — In the new Cooper Union building, Morphosis clearly deals with the concept of interval between pedestrian and architectural scales. In conclusion? Therefore, contemporary practice must be based on the review of the prescriptions of modern canons, which should be abandoned or restructured considering the fundamentals of alterity, fluidity and scale.
If form can reinforce or inhibit the effective participation and ownership, the authors claim the realization of form as attitude, political and transformative of urban conditions. As shock, a quality of radical architecture, displaces habits and alters behavior, space production becomes a libertarian attitude against popular or academic consolidated prejudice, enhancing corporeal experience and taking the focus out of mercantilization, by stressing spatial experience and political action in dealing with social reality.
It is clear then that keeping practice based on immutable perspectives or prescriptive paradigms will lead contemporary Architecture down a path of repetitive patterns and spaces detached from required new demands.Turner, Gumbrecht, Hans U. Phaidon, Subsolo Af fo ns o Pe na Jr.
Casa E. Or do they serve as ruses whereby these events are sublimated, displaced, or otherwise effused? For his presence here is not only precarious; it is contradictory.