IBM AND THE HOLOCAUST PDF
IBM and the Holocaust is the stunning story of IBM's strategic alliance with "IBM and the Holocaust is a disturbing book—all the more so because its author. File:Black Edwin IBM and the Holocaust The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and Americas Most Powerful nissart.info Instead, IBM leased these machines for high fees and became the sole source of the billions of punch cards Hitler needed. IBM and the Holocaust takes you.
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IBM and the Holocaust is the award-winning, New York Times bestselling IBM and the Holocaust and millions of other books are available for site Kindle. PDF | Marilyn A. Dyrud and others published Business and the Holocaust. and Gentlemen, a literary response; and Edwin Black's IBM and the Holocaust, an. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Professional Services, IBM, and the Holocaust | IBM and the Holocaust both represent power, ideology, and rational.
Not surprisingly, given all this, Black's book has made it into headlines around the world and on to the best-seller lists. But how well does Black's indictment stand up to critical scrutiny? Though the evidence assembled in ''IBM and the Holocaust'' must be evaluated on its merits, it is helpful in approaching it to know something about Edwin Black himself.
This background is hardly a disqualification for writing intelligently about modern history, but in Black's case it helps to explain a second relevant fact: in ''IBM and the Holocaust'' he often tells his story not in the subtle hues of genuine scholarship but in the Day-Glo paint of the potboiler.
Indications of trouble are already visible in the book's early pages, where Black stakes out a number of far-reaching claims that he is unable to sustain, most crucially that Hitler's quest to exterminate world Jewry was ''greatly enhanced and energized'' by the I.
IBM and the Holocaust
Together, Thomas Watson and Adolf Hitler -- one an extreme capitalist, the other an extreme fascist'' -- formed a ''technological and commercial alliance that would ultimately facilitate the murder of six million Jews and an equal number of other Europeans. He shows that under Watson, I. By the time war erupted in , I. But none of this is a revelation, and Black, in any case, never discusses whether I. At the same time, he greatly exaggerates the significance of I.
It is, moreover, simply not meaningful to declare, as Black does, that by or thereabouts, Germany, using Hollerith machines, ''had automated virtually its entire economy. BOOK EXCERPT "When the Final Solution sought to efficiently transport Jews out of European ghettos along railroad lines and into death camps, with timing so precise the victims were able to walk right out of the boxcar and into a waiting gas chamber, the coordination was so complex a task, this too called for a computer.
But in , no computer existed. IBM, primarily through its German subsidiary, made Hitler's program of Jewish destruction a technologic mission the company pursued with chilling success.
Technology and Culture
IBM Germany, using its own staff and equipment, designed, executed, and supplied the indispensable technologic assistance Hitler's Third Reich needed to accomplish what had never been done before -- the automation of human destruction. More than 2, such multi-machine sets were dispatched throughout Germany, and thousands more throughout German-dominated Europe.
Card sorting operations were established in every major concentration camp. Like previous German census questionnaires, the Watson received a translation of this speech along questionnaire asked for information about with a list of the Nazi officials that were invited religion and native language that could be used to to the ceremony.
When sentiments he expressed so well Black, But the German government restricted the movement of currency out of the The question confronting all American businessmen who country, which was still recovering from the traded with Germany in was whether trading with Organization Management Journal IBM and Germany — McCormick and Spee Germany was worth either the economic risk or moral allowed them to be used only by organizations that descent. The question faced Watson at IBM as well.
While Watson and Chamber of Commerce in The continued helping the German government.
Moreover, the American public honor for foreigners — a medal that honored and business community had not yet realized the power of Watson for promoting a cause that he spoke about punch cards to automate statistical processes in organiza- frequently — world peace through world trade New tions.
So the risk that highly visible trading might provoke economic retaliation seemed low, especially since Dehomag York Times, a, b; Tedlow, After receiving did not even possess a name suggestive of IBM or Watson. Watson spent more than a month traveling in Europe and meeting kings and prime ministers, and in the prickly Germany only let German-owned companies do atmosphere of , every conversation must have turned business with the government.
Watson regularly read newspapers and maga- scheme. He knew about of German government and industry adopted the Wertheims. He knew more than most Americans about punch card technology to manage complex data. Watson made bad publicity and deserved to be part of the several trips to Germany New York Times, ; community of world trade. Dehomag obtained major contracts thetic understanding to the German people and with the German army, navy, and air force.
In , a few months after Germany the German census. A month later they gave the same award to a General It will provide detailed information on the ancestry, religious faith and material possessions of all residents.
Motors GM executive. The status of One Nazi German intentions became clear to Americans in November official said that this census , when the rage of Kristallnacht swept across Germany. Nazi gangs, directed by Hitler, shattered the glass of every is intended to also determine the blood-wise configuration building owned by a Jew, set fires and looted Jewish homes of the German population y the results could also be and businesses, and beat Jews in the street. The police would thus gain an insight into the racial public sentiment turned sharply against Hitler Maney, composition of the persons living in their jurisdictions.
And —5. Quoted in Aly and Roth, 76 Watson knew of the difficulties German Jews were facing, and privately, he even helped a few In , Hitler set out to conquer most of to escape Maney, He wanted to make sure Machines to replace its former licensee, which was that IBM would thrive in Germany over the long weakened by the German invasion Black, Germany passed more anti-Jewish laws, banning Jews from professions such as teaching, accounting, and dentistry.
Jews were denied tax deductions and — child allowances. Apparently only now upset by Watson continued his advocacy of world peace Nazi policies towards Jews and others, Watson through world trade.
Watson was even a trustee of the Carnegie Founda- As the German army invaded and occupied tion for International Peace. But while he gave Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland, the govern- speeches on peace, his company was taking orders ment accelerated its relocation of Jews to concen- from and delivering punch card machines to the tration camps. As a Hausfeld, But the Nazi party officials keep prisoners alive for a minimum amount of responsible for awarding huge contracts to Deho- time; to identify prisoners; to keep track of prison- mag were outraged.
Watson was in a Black, and move them to where they were difficult position.
Beatty captures one side needed Table 1. By , it You are Thomas Watson, the founder of IBM, and you face a employed over eight times as many people as it did choice y You must know that the census and other work only 10 years earlier see Table 1. Its machines kept track of German Jews y You have visited Germany; you were in Berlin in July , when Black Shirts rampaged through the streets munitions, spare parts for the German fighter smashing the windows of Jewish stores, and forcing your planes and bombers, combat orders, and troop friends, the Wertheims, to sell their department store for movements.
With Hitler moving to occupy all of Europe, this is a chance for a clean But by June , the US had become even break.
True, the United States is not yet in the war, but more anti-Nazi. The royal- 6, ties could dry up if Dehomag lost the inside track 8, with the Germans that Heidinger provided Black, 1, 8, Hayes, 20 perhaps do something entirely different.
References Allen, M. Technology and Culture, 43 1 : gratitude.
New York Times 4 May a. Butler sees navy as force for Aly, G. Die restlose Erfassung.
Identifizieren, Aussondern im Nationalsoziaismus. Frankfurt, New York Times 17 May b.
IBM lawsuit (Holocaust claim by Gypsies)
Reich to take census of her 80 Germany: Fischer. Aul, W. November Retrieved on Paris. Beatty, J. Hitler decoration is returned by Monthly, 4 April. Belden, T. The lengthening shadow: Rodgers, W.
Think: A. The life of Thomas J. Did IBM aid the Holocaust? Retrieved 28 June Black, E.
The transfer agreement: The dramatic story of the Sobel, R.After receiving did not even possess a name suggestive of IBM or Watson. Even migrants within the US were prison sentence. In , I began an obsessive quest for answers. About the authors IBM No date. Brody Kenneth Chenault Michael L.
The streams of ethical reasoning — utilitarianism, deon- questions and probes that follow will allow you to tology, virtue theory Donaldson, Werhane, and apply various ethical models to the discussion to Cording, , and moral relativism Velasquez, give it more depth and academic rigor. Boyd School of Law. His assertions that he worked "virtually fifteen hours per day for a year" p.
So the risk that highly visible trading might provoke economic retaliation seemed low, especially since Dehomag York Times, a, b; Tedlow,