EPHEDRA CHILENSIS PDF
PDF | The medicinal significance of Ephedra is based on the antiproliferative effect of the extracts of Ephedra chilensis K Presl aerial parts. PDF | The pollen of three Ephedra taxa, Ephedra torreyana, E. trifurca and E. Ephedra chilensis is an arid-adapted species (Marticorena and Rodríguez, ; . Ephedra is a genus of gymnosperm shrubs, the only genus in its family, Ephedraceae, and . Ephedra chilensis nissart.info – Chile, Argentina; Ephedra compacta Rose – widespread in .. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
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For the cytotoxic activity, the non-polar extracts of E. chilensis had the highest Keywords: Ephedra chilensis, Antioxidant activity, Cytotoxic effect, Selectivity. Ephedra chilensis K Presl, known locally as pingo–pingo, is a Chilean endemic plant used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory and. Ephedra chilensis, ECO. Ephedra compacta, ECU. Ephedra cutleri, EDI. Ephedra distachya, EFA. Ephedra fasciculata, EFE. Ephedra fedtschenkoae, EFL.
ISSR markers revealed higher levels of polymorphism, polymorphic information content, marker index, diversity index and effective multiplex ratio than DAMD markers. Higher values of polymorphism, genetic diversity and Shannon information index at species level than at population level revealed that E.
AMOVA revealed much higher variance within populations than among the populations. The three clustering approaches viz. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first endeavour to estimate genetic diversity and population structure of E.
This composition may benefit patients with impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and pancreatic dysfunction. Stomatal development in Ephedra differs significantly from that of Gnetum and Welwitschia, more closely resembling that of other extant gymnosperms.
Differences in epidermal prepatterning broadly reflect differences in growth habit between the three genera. Ephedra plants mainly live in deserts and have good governance of desertification. Despite their important medicinal and environmental protection value, dietary supplements containing ephedrine from Ephedra species may threaten the health of people.
Morphological resemblance amongst species causes difficulty in identifying the original species of Ephedra herbs. Chloroplast CP genome shows good prospects in identification and phylogenetic analysis. This study introduced the structures of the CP genomes of three Ephedra species and analysed their phylogenetic relationships. Three complete CP genomes of Ephedra showed four-part annular structures, namely, two single-copy regions and two inverted repeat regions.
The entire CP genomes of three Ephedra species in terms of size were , bp E. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony trees showed that CP genomes could be used to identify Ephedra species. The Ephedra species had a close phylogenetic relationship with Gnetum species and Welwitschia mirabilis.
This research provided valuable information for the identification and phylogenetic analysis of gymnosperms and drug safety of Ephedra. They were identified based on their phenotypes and their sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 ITS1 region. The total ephedrine and pseudoephedrine content of most of the Ephedra samples collected in Tajikistan were higher than the 0. The total alkaloid level of E.
HOLY BLOOD HOLY GRAIL AND THE MESSIANIC LEGACY PDF
Each extract sample 2. Five hundred microliters were mixed with a Folin-Ciocalteau reagent 2. Then, a 7. The absorbance of the solution was measured at nm using ethanol as the blank.
The sample and control solutions were incubated for 15 min at room temperature, and the absorbance was measured at nm. Freshly prepared 10 volumes of mM acetate buffer, pH 3.
All of the measurements were performed in triplicate. A stock solution of extracts was prepared in ethanol, and the final concentration of this solvent was kept constant at 0.
Control cultures received only 0. In vitro growth inhibition assay Following the method of Skehan et al. After washing with distilled water, the cells were stained with 0.
The cell density was determined using a fluorescence plate reader wavelength nm. Untreated cells were used as the negative control while cells treated with doxorubicin Doxo. Finally, Sigma Plot software was used to calculate the IC50 value.
If the values of SI were equal or greater than 3, it is said that the extract is selective. If the value exceeds 10, the selectivity was assumed to be very high [ 21 ].
The extracts 1. The mass scan was set between 35 and a. The mass spectra were compared with the internal spectra database.
These parameters refer to the matching capability of the target spectrum with the standard spectrum in the NIST Library a value of indicates a perfect fit. Additionally, a comparison of the retention index was made with values reported in the literature for the same type of column, or with commercial standards when available [ 24 ].
The relative concentrations of the components were obtained by peak area normalization. Results Phytochemical content After E.
Table 1 Phytochemical contents of different extracts of the aerial part of E.The ethnopharmacological information showed that E. Plantas medicinales de uso comtin en Chile. The results showed varying amounts among fruits of the five study species.
Determination of sun protection factor and antioxidant properties of six Chilean Altiplano plants
Valepotriatos de Valeriana lapathifolia Vahl. Mar 10, Laura added it.
The idea of keeping the family tree pruned to bonsai-like proportions is also completely fallacious. This genus has been studied due its high contents of ephedrine alkaloids [ 6 ]. The relative concentrations of the components were obtained by peak area normalization. Atropina en Latua pubiflora Griseb.
If the value exceeds 10, the selectivity was assumed to be very high [ 21 ].