DISCOVER DEBATE PDF
Label the illustration with the debate words from the word box below. Debate. Debate Application:Debate Terms. Discover Debate. Unit 1. Judge. Resolution. nissart.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Discover Debate - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Discover Debate.
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Books» » Discover Debate download Discover Debate - Michael Lubetsky, Charles Lebeau,. David Harrington, Ty nissart.info Download PDF. Discover Debate Basic Skills For Supporting And Refuting Opinions. Discover It can be downloaded and install with the type of pdf, rar, kindle, zip, txt, ppt, and. Download, Free Discover Debate Basic Skills For Supporting And Refuting Opinions. Download Pdf, Free Pdf Discover Debate Basic Skills For Supporting And.
Question 2 What is dark energy? Two recent discoveries from cosmology prove that ordinary matter and dark matter are still not enough to explain the structure of the universe. There's a third component out there, and it's not matter but some form of dark energy.
The first line of evidence for this mystery component comes from measurements of the geometry of the universe. Einstein theorized that all matter alters the shape of space and time around it. Therefore, the overall shape of the universe is governed by the total mass and energy within it.
Recent studies of radiation left over from the Big Bang show that the universe has the simplest shape—it's flat. That, in turn, reveals the total mass density of the universe. But after adding up all the potential sources of dark matter and ordinary matter, astronomers still come up two-thirds short.
The second line of evidence suggests that the mystery component must be energy. Observations of distant supernovas show that the rate of expansion of the universe isn't slowing as scientists had once assumed; in fact, the pace of the expansion is increasing. This cosmic acceleration is difficult to explain unless a pervasive repulsive force constantly pushes outward on the fabric of space and time.
Why dark energy produces a repulsive force field is a bit complicated. Quantum theory says virtual particles can pop into existence for the briefest of moments before returning to nothingness.
That means the vacuum of space is not a true void. Rather, space is filled with low-grade energy created when virtual particles and their antimatter partners momentarily pop into and out of existence, leaving behind a very small field called vacuum energy. That energy should produce a kind of negative pressure, or repulsion, thereby explaining why the universe's expansion is accelerating.
Consider a simple analogy: If you pull back on a sealed plunger in an empty, airtight vessel, you'll create a near vacuum. At first, the plunger will offer little resistance, but the farther you pull, the greater the vacuum and the more the plunger will pull back against you.
Although vacuum energy in outer space was pumped into it by the weird rules of quantum mechanics, not by someone pulling on a plunger, this example illustrates how repulsion can be created by a negative pressure.
Question 3 How were the heavy elements from iron to uranium made? Both dark matter and possibly dark energy originate from the earliest days of the universe, when light elements such as helium and lithium arose. Heavier elements formed later inside stars, where nuclear reactions jammed protons and neutrons together to make new atomic nuclei.
For instance, four hydrogen nuclei one proton each fuse through a series of reactions into a helium nucleus two protons and two neutrons. That's what happens in our sun, and it produces the energy that warms Earth. But when fusion creates elements that are heavier than iron, it requires an excess of neutrons.
Therefore, astronomers assume that heavier atoms are minted in supernova explosions, where there is a ready supply of neutrons, although the specifics of how this happens are unknown. More recently, some scientists have speculated that at least some of the heaviest elements, such as gold and lead, are formed in even more powerful blasts that occur when two neutron stars—tiny, burned-out stellar corpses—collide and collapse into a black hole.
If each one has even the tiniest mass, represented here by the ball on the right, which weighs just a bit more than the zero-mass ball on the left, this weight could account for a lot of the universe's missing dark matter. Nuclear reactions such as those that create heavy elements also create vast numbers of ghostly subatomic bits known as neutrinos.
These belong to a group of particles called leptons, such as the familiar electron and the muon and tau particles. Because neutrinos barely interact with ordinary matter, they can allow a direct look into the heart of a star. This works only if we are able to capture and study them, something physicists are just now learning to do.
Not long ago, physicists thought neutrinos were massless, but recent advances indicate that these particles may have a small mass. Any such evidence would also help validate theories that seek to find a common description of three of the four natural forces—electromagnetism, strong force, and weak force.
Even a tiny bit of heft would add up because a staggering number of neutrinos are left over from the Big Bang. Question 5 Where do ultrahigh-energy particles come from? The most energetic particles that strike us from space, which include neutrinos as well as gamma-ray photons and various other bits of subatomic shrapnel, are called cosmic rays.
They bombard Earth all the time; a few are zipping through you as you read this article. Cosmic rays are sometimes so energetic, they must be born in cosmic accelerators fueled by cataclysms of staggering proportions. Scientists suspect some sources: the Big Bang itself, shock waves from supernovas collapsing into black holes, and matter accelerated as it is sucked into massive black holes at the centers of galaxies.
Knowing where these particles originate and how they attain such colossal energies will help us understand how these violent objects operate. Question 6 Is a new theory of light and matter needed to explain what happens at very high energies and temperatures? All of that violence cited in question 5 leaves a visible trail of radiation, especially in the form of gamma rays—the extremely energetic cousins of ordinary light.
Astronomers have known for three decades that brilliant flashes of these rays, called gamma-ray bursts, arrive daily from random directions in the sky. Recently astronomers have pinned down the location of the bursts and tentatively identified them as massive supernova explosions and neutron stars colliding both with themselves and black holes.
But even now nobody knows much about what goes on when so much energy is flying around.
Matter grows so hot that it interacts with radiation in unfamiliar ways, and photons of radiation can crash into each other and create new matter. The distinction between matter and energy grows blurry. Throw in the added factor of magnetism, and physicists can make only rough guesses about what happens in these hellish settings.
Perhaps current theories simply aren't adequate to explain them. But what happens at extreme temperatures? Does matter break down into a soup of subatomic particles—called a quark-gluon plasma—and then into energy? Under extreme energetic conditions, matter undergoes a series of transitions, and atoms break down into their smallest constituent parts. Those parts are elementary particles called quarks and leptons, which as far as we know cannot be subdivided into smaller parts.
Quarks are extremely sociable and are never observed in nature alone.
Rather, they combine with other quarks to form protons and neutrons three quarks per proton that further combine with leptons such as electrons to form whole atoms. The hydrogen atom, for example, is made up of an electron orbiting a single proton. Atoms, in turn, bind to other atoms to form molecules, such as H2O. As temperatures increase, molecules transform from a solid such as ice, to a liquid such as water, to a gas such as steam.
That's all predictable, known science, but at temperatures and densities billions of times greater than those on Earth, it's possible that the elementary parts of atoms may come completely unglued from one another, forming a plasma of quarks and the energy that binds quarks together.
Physicists are trying to create this state of matter, a quark-gluon plasma, at a particle collider on Long Island. At still higher temperatures and pressures, far beyond those scientists can create in a laboratory, the plasma may transmute into a new form of matter or energy. Such phase transitions may reveal new forces of nature.
These new forces would be added to the three forces that are already known to regulate the behavior of quarks. The so-called strong force is the primary agent that binds these particles together. The second atomic force, called the weak force, can transform one type of quark into another there are six different "flavors" of quark—up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom.
The final atomic force, electromagnetism, binds electrically charged particles such as protons and electrons together. As its name implies, the strong force is by far the most muscular of the three, more than times as powerful as electromagnetism and 10, times stronger than the weak force. Particle physicists suspect the three forces are different manifestations of a single energy field in much the same way that electricity and magnetism are different facets of an electromagnetic field.
In fact, physicists have already shown the underlying unity between electromagnetism and the weak force. Some unified field theories suggest that in the ultrahot primordial universe just after the Big Bang, the strong, weak, electromagnetic, and other forces were one, then unraveled as the cosmos expanded and cooled.
The possibility that a unification of forces occurred in the newborn universe is a prime reason particle physicists are taking such a keen interest in astronomy and why astronomers are turning to particle physics for clues about how these forces may have played a role in the birth of the universe.
For unification of forces to occur, there must be a new class of supermassive particles called gauge bosons. If they exist, they will allow quarks to change into other particles, causing the protons that lie at the heart of every atom to decay.
And if physicists prove protons can decay, the finding will verify the existence of new forces. That raises the next question. But unified field theory predicts that time may eventually run out for protons, and they could decay into a spray of subparticles. In case you're worried that the protons you're made of will disintegrate, transforming you into a puddle of elementary particles and free energy, don't sweat it.
Various observations and experiments show that protons must be stable for at least a billion trillion trillion years. However, many physicists believe that if the three atomic forces are really just different manifestations of a single unified field, the alchemical, supermassive bosons described above will materialize out of quarks every now and then, causing quarks, and the protons they compose, to degenerate.
At first glance, you'd be forgiven for thinking these physicists had experienced some sort of mental decay on the grounds that tiny quarks are unlikely to give birth to behemoth bosons weighing more than 10,,,,, times themselves. But there's something called the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which states that you can never know both the momentum and the position of a particle at the same time, and it indirectly allows for such an outrageous proposition.
Therefore, it's possible for a massive boson to pop out of a quark making up a proton for a very short time and cause that proton to decay. Question 9 What is gravity? Next there's the matter of gravity, the odd force out when it comes to small particles and the energy that holds them together. When Einstein improved on Newton's theory, he extended the concept of gravity by taking into account both extremely large gravitational fields and objects moving at velocities close to the speed of light.
These extensions lead to the famous concepts of relativity and space-time. But Einstein's theories do not pay any attention to quantum mechanics, the realm of the extremely small, because gravitational forces are negligible at small scales, and discrete packets of gravity, unlike discrete packets of energy that hold atoms together, have never been experimentally observed.
Nonetheless, there are extreme conditions in nature in which gravity is compelled to get up close and personal with the small stuff. For example, near the heart of a black hole, where huge amounts of matter are squeezed into quantum spaces, gravitational forces become very powerful at tiny distances. The same must have been true in the dense primordial universe around the time of the Big Bang.
Physicist Stephen Hawking identified a specific problem about black holes that requires a bridging of quantum mechanics and gravity before we can have a unified theory of anything.
This book is dedicated to: Brian effrey Moss anuary 6, June 21, He was our colleague, and our friend. Hewi always be in our hearts. To eTe he, This book is an answer to a much debated question: "Is debate possible for low level learners?
Discover Debate: Basic Skills for Supporting and Refuting Opinions
However, we feel stron y that it is necessary to take a somewhat different approach to debate for low level learners. New concepts and methodologies are required.
These are the concepts that have proven successful for us. We hope they, in turn, will be successful for you. Stepping Stones Toward Debate First, this book recognizes that debate is a very sophisticated form of immediate, interactive communication.
Debate assumes a high level of discourse skill. Thus, although the goal of the book is debate, Unit 1 begins not with debate but with exchanging opinions. We assume nothing and start from zero. From there, we have paved the way to debate with 9 small, but necessary, steps units that can be taken in stride by beginners.
This journey is a road of discovery, hence the title of the book. Along the way, we learn how to support opinions with reasons, how to support reasons with evidence, and how to organize information into a coherent message. Continuing down the road, we learn how to refute explanations, how to challenge evidence, and how to organize refutations into a coherent message. Finally, we learn how to make rebuttal arguments, and then, at the end of the journey, we are ready to discover and enjoy debate.
Metaphorically Speaking Secondly, debate is, by its very nature, abstract. But abstractions are very difficult to teach. So, we have had to find a way of making debate concrete, a way of making the reasoning of debate visible to the students.
To this end, we have found comparing debate with constructing a house, attacking a house, and rebuilding a house to be a very powerful metaphor. Thus, throughout the book, the first page of each unit cements the unit's contents to the house concept. Metaphorically speaking, the roof of the house is the topic, or resolution, of the debate. This roof is supported by pillars, or reasons, and the entire house rests on a foundation of evidence.
Only careful construction allows a house to withstand the attack of storm and gale, snow and rain, wind and hail. Likewise, only strong reasons and firm evidence allow a debate case to withstand well-aimed refutations.No more dieting!
If we ban nuclear weapons. What do you think? Gordon Allport argues that it is only by knowing the person as a person that we can predict what the person will do in any given situation. Read the ref utations written next to the letter.
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Cats have 4 legs. Read the ref utations written next to the letter. The New York Yankees.