CHASSIS HANDBOOK PDF
This book examines these convention. Chassis Handbook. Fundamentals PDF · Chassis Components. Bernd Heißing, Metin Ersoy. Pages PDF. The first € price and the £ and $ price are net prices, subject to local VAT. Prices indicated with * include VAT for books; the €(D) includes 7% for. Germany, the. This book examines these conventional elements and their interactions with DRM-free; Included format: PDF; ebooks can be used on all reading devices.
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This book has been compiled using extracts from the following books within the range of Automotive. Engineering books in the Elsevier collection: Blundell, M. The Chassis Handbook was kindly sponsored by ZF Friedrichshafen AG. This chassis technology handbook was published by the Vieweg Verlag publishing. Perspectives Atzmtz Fachbuch - [Free] Chassis Handbook Fundamentals Driving Components Mechatronics Perspectives Atzmtz Fachbuch [PDF] [EPUB] -.
Introduction and Fundamentals. Pages Driving Dynamics. Chassis Components. Axles and Suspensions. Ride Comfort and NVH. Chassis Development. Chassis Control Systems.
The Future of Chassis Technology.
Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction Despite the assistance provided by electronic control systems, the latest generation of passenger car chassis still relies heavily on conventional chassis elements. This technology, known as ABS anti-lock braking system , restricts wheel lock-up during braking. The first modern ABS system using freely programmable electronics and wheel speed sensors was proposed by Fritz Oswald , developed at Bosch, and entered series production as an option on some Mercedes-Benz vehicles.
An electronic system to regulate tire slip under power was introduced in as ASR anti-slip regulation. A further system known as ESC electronic stability control was introduced in ESP combines electronic braking and engine regulation to stabilize vehicle behavior in extreme situations.
Two further electronic braking regulation systems, EBD electronic brake force distribution and BAS braking assistance system , were introduced in and , respectively. Steering: The steering wheel dates back to the Englishman Walter Hancock s steam-powered car, which appeared at the beginning of the 19 th century.
of: Bernd HeiÃing, Metin Ersoy
After the introduction of kingpin steering, the first vehicle with rack-and-pinion steering was Amedee Bollee s steam-powered car La Mancelle. The gear ratio between the pinion and rack allowed a reduction of the force required to steer the wheels. This also meant, however, that the steering wheel must be turned further to achieve the same steering angle at the wheels. The American L. Megy integrated the function of the toe link into the steering 26 1. Due to the low efficiency of the rack-and-pinion system, it was largely neglected in favor of the worm-and-roller of Henry Marles or the worm-and-peg of Bishop also known as the Ross steering system.
The high friction of the worm-and-roller was greatly reduced in the s by Saginaw Steering Division s worm and recirculating-ball nut steering gear. Recirculating-ball steering was standard until the s, and was used by Mercedes until as recently as the s. The introduction of power steering, combined with improved materials, better machining processes, and greatly reduced manufacturing costs, resulted in rackand-pinion completely replacing recirculating-ball steering in passenger vehicles.
Although a vehicle with rear-wheel steering is more maneuverable than a vehicle with front-wheel steering, steering has remained chiefly the domain of the front wheels, due to the simple fact that a vehicle with rear-wheel steering would be too difficult for any driver to control at high speeds.
The advantages of rear-wheel steering were first explored a century ago, and were combined with front-wheel steering to create all-wheel or four-wheel steering systems. Fourwheel steering was offered in the s by several Japanese manufacturers, but production was stopped just a few years later. Despite this rough start, fourwheel steering has made a comeback in recent years.
The history of steering systems also includes such innovations as the adjustable steering column invented in the USA and the collapsible steering column invented by Bela Bereny at Daimler Benz. The invention of the collapsible steering column for crash safety helped coin the term passive safety as it pertains to vehicle development.
Springs: Torsion beams and coil springs proved to be the successors to the above-mentioned elliptical leaf springs. The development of coil springs with a customized, progressive spring rate can be traced back to Jean Alber Gregorie. The Lloyd Arabella featured progressive-rate coil springs as early as In , Opel introduced a smaller version, the spacesaving miniblock spring. Spring materials and surface treatments have improved dramatically in recent years. This has led to smaller springs which are capable of handling larger loads.
Torsion bar springs are tunable and compact, but this solution is seldom used due to its high cost. In spite of their lack of use as primary springs, torsion bars are widely used as stabilizers to increase roll stiffness by increasing the load difference between the outer and inner wheels during cornering.
The Automotive Chassis
Stabilizer bars are especially common in independent front suspensions. Pneumatic springs were used in horse-drawn carriage suspensions since Hydropneumatic springs were used in George Stephenson s locomotives as early as Westinghouse, an American, developed pneumatic springs for use in passenger cars around Citroen offered hydropneumatic suspension as a special option Traction Avant on the last version of the 15 CV, and as standard equipment on the legendary DS in Air springs have been used since the s, and are used today mainly in luxury cars to improve ride comfort.
Air springs boast greatly reduced rubber wall thickness and minimal hysteresis, which enables them to be effective even at very small amplitudes. Damping: True velocity-dependent damping elements were absent from the first 50 years of automobile development. The dampers during this time period functioned mainly using dry friction, with leather or asbestos as a friction element.
The static friction in a damper of this type is much greater than the dynamic friction, which eliminates the possibility of a damper with an increased damping rate at higher relative velocities. This makes the damping of smallamplitude vibrations nearly impossible. Even more advanced friction dampers, such as the popular Gabriel Snubber with its leather damping element, could not satisfactorily dampen wheel vibrations.
Houdaille suggested as early as that a hydraulic fluid be used as a damping element, whereby a pumping mechanism would transport the fluid back and forth between two chambers .
This type of hydraulic rotational damper was common from until the first translational, double-walled telescoping hydraulic shock absorbers were mass-produced by the American company Monroe in These unpressurized, twin-tube, telescoping shock absorbers were introduced in Europe in the s. The two main problems with this type of damper are the limited range of installation angles and the risk of water contamination in the oil.
These problems were solved by Christian Bourcier de Carbon s invention of the monotube gas pressure shock absorber, which uses a volume of compressible gas to compensate for volume differences during the compression and expansion of the shock absorber. Hans Bilstein bought the rights from De Carbon and developed the first highquality single-tube damper with Mercedes in Adjustable dampers were introduced in the early s by Kayaba and Tokico in Japan.
These dampers automatically increase their damping rates at high speeds. The first European damper of this kind was developed by Boge for Mercedes. This concept was further developed into a multi-stage damper, which was controlled by a stepper motor mounted directly to the shaft of the shock absorber.
of: Bernd HeiÃing, Metin Ersoy
CDC continuously variable dampers which use a proportionally adjustable valve, have been available for the past 15 years. Prior to this, the first parallel-displacement wheel control systems were already in use. The Motorwagen Wartburg from used a wheel-displacement system along the kingpin, whereas the Lancia Lambda used a vertically telescoping front wheel control system. The maintenance-free ball joint, introduced in , replaced the kingpin hub system, thus simplifying suspension design.
The dual swingarm suspension of the Volkswagen Beetle and the double-wishbone design of the Mercedes Typ were the first independent suspension systems.
One of the most common designs today is the McPherson front suspension, which was first described in a patent by Fiat in and used by Ford in the Consul and Anglia models. Another standard design today is the multi-link suspension, first described in a patent by Fritz Oswald . The first unibody design was patented and produced by Opel in This revolutionary design effectively replaced the term axle with suspension.
Audi introduced the twist beam rear axle in to reduce costs and save space in vehicles with non-driven rear axles.
This suspension is still the standard today for small, front-wheel-drive cars. Multi-link rear suspensions with one trailing arm are widely used, and offer better characteristics than the twist beam design for driven rear axles.
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A multi-link rear suspension, however, is typically larger, heavier, and more expensive than a trailing arm solution. The kinematics of a suspension system can be manipulated by carefully choosing the positions and orientations of the control arms and joints. An example of this is the negative scrub radius patented by Fritz Oswald and first used in the Audi Ball joints with three degrees of rotational freedom were unknown in the early years of automobile design; steering was accomplished using a simple swivel pin with two pivot bearings.
In , the German engineer Fritz Faudi was granted a patent for his invention entitled ball joint, specifically intended for the steering of vehicles.
This design consisted of a steel ball stud housed between two steel cups. The invention of the ball joint enabled the kingpin to be replaced by a wheel carrier. A further development came in with Ehrenreich s introduction of a maintenance-free ball joint with a plastic race.
Rubber bushings were first introduced in the USA as motor mounts in the s under the name Floating Power. They later found use as joints between the chassis and control arms. The initial function of rubber bushings was to isolate the body from the noise, vibration, and harshness NVH of the roadway. Over time, rubber bushings have become an integral suspension component, and can be tuned to achieve improved suspension dynamics.
This integration is reflected in the use of the term elastokinematics by automotive engineers since Wheel Bearings: A rolling wheel is connected to its hub carrier by means of a bearing. Sliding bearings were used in early vehicles, in spite of their large friction losses and inaccuracies due to high wear rates. After the invention of the rolling bearing with its low friction losses, low wear rates, and high precision, sliding bearings were completely replaced as wheel bearings.
Regular ball bearings were initially used, but were soon replaced by angular-contact ball bearings. Tires: The pneumatic tire was invented by the Scotsman Dunlop in Dunlop s invention originally found use exclusively as a form of bicycle suspension. The first pneumatic tires for automotive use were clincher tires on flat-base rims, based on an invention by the American William Bartlett. Bartlett s patent was also the basis for the first removable tire, which was developed by Michelin.
These early tires were made from natural rubber, and featured textile strands in a crisscross pattern on their interior surface. The service life of these early tires was very short, and removal of the tire from the wheel for repair was a difficult, time-consuming process. To make wheel replacement easier, the removable Stepney wheel was introduced, followed by the Rudge-Whitworth wheel. Tire longevity increased by a factor of ten with Goodyear s introduction of a rubber-soot compound in But the first use of carbon as additive to increase the longevity was by Pirelli in The ride comfort of these early tires left much to be desired, with their high air pressure and hard rubber construction, combined with increasing speeds on bumpy roads.
The first low-pressure tire, or so-called balloon tire, was introduced by Michelin on Citroen models. This tire was mounted on a dropbase rim and had a low positive pressure of just 2. Its diagonal cord or bias-ply structure, an invention by Palmer from , prevented the tire from overheating during use. Extension-resistant cord restricted the relative movement of the rubber layers during deformation, which increased tire life by a factor of ten and improved lateral stability.
The early cords were made from cotton and replaced by more durable Rayon in the s. The air in these early tires was contained in an inner tube. The inner tube was not entirely necessary, however, since the interface between the tire s beaded edge and the wheel s flange was typically airtight. The first tubeless tires were introduced in America by 28 1.
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The next and perhaps most important advancement in tire technology was the invention of the radial tire, which was patented by Michelin in and featured on the Citroen 2CV. The radial tire featured textile cloth around the bead core lateral to the direction of travel, which decreases deformation due to inner pressure and increases lateral stability.
A circumferential steel belt was added to strengthen the sidewall, which made the diagonal cord structure obsolete. The elimination of the diagonal cord structure reduced friction, which led to a decrease in tire wear. The additional support provided by the steel belt allowed an increase in maximum speed.
Radial construction also allowed tires to be made with a flat cross-section instead of a balloon-like round profile. This increased the size of the contact patch, which provided higher lateral grip. A further advancement in tire technology came with the addition of tread patterns. In the German Robert Sommer invented the laterally-oriented fine tread pattern or sipe , which increased traction on snow, ice, and wet surfaces.
Rolling resistance, which is responsible for nearly one-third of fuel consumption, was later reduced by adding silica instead of carbon powder to the rubber compounds used in tires.
Efforts to develop a safety or run-flat tire, which would not deflate in the event of a puncture, were underway as early as the s. This technology has found its way into high-end vehicles in recent years. Wheels: The first automobiles featured spoked wagon wheels with wire or wooden spokes. The spokes on these early wheels came together at the hub in a conical shape. Early steel-spoked wheels featured steel wires in a crisscross pattern.
Race cars and sports cars used these wire wheels for weight reduction and brake ventilation. Increasing wheel loads led to the introduction of spoked wheels with a cast or forged construction. Flexible wheels with a solid outer edge were in use before the introduction of the air-filled tire, but proved to be too expensive and complex. The ubiquitous stamped-steel wheel with inwardly-angled flanges was first available as a flatbase rim with a beaded-edge tire, and later as a dropbase rim with a balloon tire.
The modern, removable drop-base rim with bolt centering and a low-pressure tire with a valve was in use by the end of the s. Chassis Development: During the first 50 years of automobile development, chassis systems were the domain of tinkers and inventors.
Designs were intuitive, and solutions often improvised. The focus of early automotive engineers was the development of a lightweight and efficient powertrain. Although Karl Benz emphasized chassis development early on, general chassis development lagged behind that of the powertrain until the s.
As powertrain technology improved, the maximum speeds of early automobiles increased rapidly. This resulted in increasing demands on reliability, comfort, and safety, especially concerning cornering and braking. In order to meet these demands, the focus of vehicle development shifted to suspension. In the s, the chassis development departments of most vehicle manufacturers consisted of only about 50 engineers and draftsmen.
This resulted in long lead times for new chassis developments and components.
For a vehicle manufacturer to remain competitive today, this entire process can only take about 3 years, despite the fact that the number of models and derivatives has increased tenfold. The introduction of CAD in allowed vehicle manufacturers to move away from the traditional drawing board to the much more effective computer workstation.
This shift has enabled engineers not only to simulate complex wheel movements on-screen, but also to quickly conduct package size and interference investigations. Optimization and the management of product changes have also been greatly simplified with the introduction of computer tools. The introduction of ever more advanced computer simulation and CAE programs over the past 20 years, combined with the increasing general knowledge of vehicle dynamic behavior, has led to significant improvements in vehicle safety and comfort.
The focus of today s chassis technology is the integration and networking of basic mechanical functions with sensors, electrical equipment, and electronics.
Refined hydraulic control of steering, damping, and braking, combined with electronic control systems, will pave the way for the intelligent suspension of tomorrow.
A central role is played by the global chassis management concept, whereby individual control systems are integrated with one another to form a central control loop Definition and Scope Suspension and chassis technology is defined as the sum of all vehicle systems that are responsible not only for the generation of forces between the tires and the road surface, but also for the transfer of these forces to the road in order to enable driving, steering, and braking.
These systems include the tires, wheels, bearings, hub carriers, brakes, suspension, springs, dampers, steering, stabilizers, subframes, differentials, half-shafts, pedals, steering column, steering wheel, all control systems which support the chassis and suspension, and all driver assistance systems . As a result of increased functionality, the steering wheel has developed into a highly complex part which includes components of numerous other systems such as supplementary restraints, media interfaces, and assistance systems.
For this reason, a complete and appropriate description of the steering wheel is beyond the scope of this book Purpose and Significance The suspension creates a connection between the vehicle including occupants and cargo and the roadway.
With the exception of aerodynamic and inertial forces, all external forces and moments are applied to the vehicle through the contact patch between the road surface and the tire. The most important criterion for driving is an uninterrupted contact between the road surface and tire.
If this contact is broken, steering, acceleration, deceleration, and the transfer of lateral forces become impossible. In the absence of external forces, the satisfaction of this requirement would be trivial if the road surface were always straight, dry, adherent, and free of obstacles and bumps.
If all of these criteria were satisfied and the vehicle was only to move in a straight line, the suspension and chassis would only be responsible for acceleration, deceleration, and keeping the vehicle on a straight path.The Automotive Chassis: Download or read Chassis Handbook: Are you sure you want to Yes No. Although some of these vehicles featured advanced suspension systems, this first type of self-propelled transport was not the model for today s automobiles.
The modern, removable drop-base rim with bolt centering and a low-pressure tire with a valve was in use by the end of the s. As a result, the only way to economically operate the heavy, steampowered vehicles of the early 19 th century was on rails.
First, it describes the fundamentals and design of the chassis and goes on to examine driving dynamics with a particularly practical focus..
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