ASTM D828 PDF
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D06 on Paper. De1 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Paper and Paperboard Using Constant-Rate-of-Elongation Apparatus Format, Pages, Price. PDF. D - 97 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Paper and Paperboard Using Constant-Rate-of-Elongation Apparatus Format, Pages, Price. PDF.
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ASTM D - 97 Rpdf - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. download ASTM D() Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Paper and Paperboard Using Constant-Rate-of-Elongation Apparatus from SAI. TAPPI Tensile of-Paper T (ASTM D) - T om SUGGESTED METHOD – OFFICIAL STANDARD –.
They are not comprised of a cylindrical and a flat surface or two cylindrical for use with combined corrugated board. Significance and Use include tensile strength, stretch, tensile energy absorption, tensile stiffness, breaking length, and tensile index. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are for use, or both, of paper and paper products. They may be information only. They may safety concerns, if any, associated with its use.
It is the also be influenced by or indicative of specific manufacturing responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- procedures used in producing a specific paper or paper product.
Referenced Documents 4. The tensile Paper, Paperboard, Fiberboard, and Related Products2 strength of printing papers is indicative of the potential D Practice for Conditioning Paper and Paper Products resistance to web breaking during printing and other converting for Testing2 operations and during travel of the web from the roll through D Method of Test for Stretch of Paper and Paper the equipment.
Products Under Tension3 4. These E Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, are important properties of creped papers, towels, napkins, decorative papers, industrially used paper tapes both creped and pleated , bags, and liners for cans, barrels, and cartons.
Current edition approved Dec. Published November Originally 4 approved in Last previous edition approved in as D — Box , Atlanta, GA The user of the instrument must, in turn, determine that 4. Numerous other calculations may be based on the tensile tensile rupture criteria. Apparatus test method, as agreed upon between the manufacturer and the 5. Use optional, as agreed upon between the users of this test method.
In these cases, as agreed upon between the users of this test 5. The specific characteristics of the testing machine used the same plane and so aligned that they hold the test specimen will dictate the need for this device.
Most modern electronic in that plane throughout the test.
See of the grips at the beginning of a test must be adjustable and 5. The double-blade Other cutting dies may also be used, provided 5. The load measuring mens comply with 5.
It is important to understand that the circuitry must be capable of accurate calibration, and must requirements of 5. The tolerances to which the cutter or cutting value. These instruments provide features readout device or cathode ray tube screen, capable of accurate not limited to calibration, calibration check, automation of testing se- calibration and of indicating the elongation values to a read- quence, storing of testing programs including rate of grip separation or ability and accuracy of It has two shoulders and a gage section in between.
The shoulders are large so they can be readily gripped, whereas the gauge section has a smaller cross-section so that the deformation and failure can occur in this area. Each system has advantages and disadvantages; for example, shoulders designed for serrated grips are easy and cheap to manufacture, but the alignment of the specimen is dependent on the skill of the technician.
ASTM D - 97 Rpdf
On the other hand, a pinned grip assures good alignment. Threaded shoulders and grips also assure good alignment, but the technician must know to thread each shoulder into the grip at least one diameter's length, otherwise the threads can strip before the specimen fractures. These specimens may not be exact representation of the whole workpiece because the grain structure may be different throughout.
In smaller workpieces or when critical parts of the casting must be tested, a workpiece may be sacrificed to make the test specimens.
Tensile properties of paper and paperboard using constant rate of elongation apparatus 1. Scope 1. Definitions 2.
Tensile strength as used here is the force per unit width of test specimen.
The stretch or percentage elongation is expressed as a percentage, i. The elastic region of the tensile-strain relationship is the linear portion of the load-elongation relationship up to the elastic limit. Tensile stiffness is numerically equivalent to E?
Significance 3. It may be used to deduce information about these factors, especially when used as a tensile strength index. For quality control purposes, tensile strength has been used as an indication of the serviceability of many papers which are subjected to a simple and direct tensile stress. Tensile strength can also be used as an indication of the potential resistance to web breaking of papers such as printing papers during printing on a web fed press or other web fed converting operations.
When evaluating the tensile strength, the stretch and the tensile energy absorption for these parameters can be of equal or greater importance in predicting the performance of paper, especially when that paper is subjected to an uneven stress such as gummed tape, or a dynamic stress such as when a sack full of granular material is dropped.
It should be considered important in all papers, but is of particular importance in papers where stress-strain properties are being modified or controlled. This includes creped paper, pleated paper, air-dried paper, and paper that has been made extensible through mechanical compaction.
Stretch may be used as an indication of the amount of crepe in tissues, towels, napkins, and similar grades. Stretch has also been found important in reducing the frequency of breaks on high-speed web fed printing presses such as are used to print newspapers.
An example of this is a multi-wall sack that is subject to frequent dropping. In packaging applications such as multi-wall sacks, favorable drop tests and low failure rates have been found to correlate better with tensile energy absorption than with tensile strength.
Apparatus 4. The use of emery cloth on flat gripping surfaces will help minimize slippage for some board grades. See These tests may be performed with the test strip horizontal or vertical by such equipment.
Such equipment may be suitable for use in performing this method; however, the user is responsible for making independent assessment of this fact on the basis of data generated using specific equipment. Sampling and test specimens 5. Consequently, TEA is similarly affected. Careful protection of the sample from the time of sampling until testing is therefore very important.
Insure that strips are free from abnormalities, creases, or wrinkles. In some cases, it may be impossible or impractical to obtain a test specimen having a length long enough to be clamped in the jaws having the test span specified here. In such cases, see Appendix A.
Procedures 6.Both ends of the specimens should have sufficient length and a surface condition such that they are firmly gripped during testing. Repeat for several different time intervals within the expected In some cases, it may be impossible or impractical to obtain a test specimen having a length long enough to be clamped in the jaws having the test span specified here.
In cases where a 1. They may also be influenced by or indicative of specific manufacturing procedures used in producing a specific paper or paper product. Measure the actual distance with the caliper. Tensile strength can also be used as an indication of the potential resistance to web breaking of papers such as printing papers during printing on a web fed press or other web fed converting operations.
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